Efficient load securing depends on the nature of the goods and starts with the correct transport-suitable packing, loading, stowage and securing of the load. Only goods that are well packed and stowed can be secured and transported in a safe and roadworthy manner.

Forces acting on the load during transport

In normal driving conditions (including full braking, acceleration, evasive manoeuvres and poor road conditions), enormous forces act on the load.

Example: 0.5 G sideways means that cargo with 10 tonnes of net weight can press into the tarpaulin with forces of up to 5 tonnes in weight: 0.5 G = 50% of the net weight.

Force acting on the load during road transport Force acting on the load during road transport

Force acting on the load during road transport

Force acting on the load in Combined Transport

Combined Transport Combined Transport

Due to the shunting of railway waggons in railway stations and the rolling and heeling motions on ships, higher forces act on the load than when trucking on the road.

For Combined Transport, this requires increased load securing measures:

  • Given that the trailers on the railway waggon are loaded against the direction of travel, the load must also be secured from slipping backwards.
  • Ensure optimum weight distribution on the trailer – avoid top-heavy or tail-heavy loading!
  • Before every delivery to the terminal/port or every transfer of the trailer, check again that the load is correctly secured (e.g. sufficient tension in the tensioning straps).

Force in Combined Transport – rail

Force in Combined Transport – rail Force in Combined Transport – rail

Force in Combined Transport – ship

Force in Combined Transport – ship Force in Combined Transport – ship

Load securing methods

The "form-fit" load securing method

With "form-fit" load securing, the goods are loaded perpendicular to the boundary of the loading hold (front wall, side panel, stakes, etc.) without gaps between the loads.
Form-fit loading, in combination with XL trailers, is considered a particularly efficient method of securing loads.
If this is not possible due to the nature of the goods, form fit can be achieved with the aid of tensioning straps and tools. Form-fit methods of load securing with tensioning straps are e.g. cross and spring lashing, head-loop or bay-loop lashing.

The "force-fit" load securing method

With "force-fit" load securing, lashing the goods down increases the weight force of the goods, thus achieving a better load securing.
Force-fit load securing: When lashing down the goods, the straps lose lashing capacity with decreasing angles Force-fit load securing: When lashing down the goods, the straps lose lashing capacity with decreasing angles

The "combined load" securing method

With combined load securing, elements of form-fit and force-fit load securing are combined. The load is, for example, loaded to the front wall and lashed down with form-fit and force-fit tensioning straps. In practice, this method of load securing is very frequently used.
Securing for Combined Transport – forwards, sideways and backwards using non-slip mats Securing for Combined Transport – forwards, sideways and backwards using non-slip mats
The pictures printed in the pre-text are symbolic images. Information sheets with specific practical examples in accordance with EN 12195-1 on the different methods of load securing for different product groups are available from your contact person.

Video clip "Types of load securing"

Types of load securing play

Tensioning straps and aids for load securing

A sufficient number of load securing aids (straps, edge protectors, anti-slip mats), in perfect condition, is a basic prerequisite for effective load securing.
Tensioning strap with long lever ratchet Tensioning strap with long lever ratchet Pretensioning gauge Pretensioning gauge

Tensioning straps and pretensioning gauge

Tensioning straps are primarily used to produce force-fit and form-fit load securing on the vehicle. By lashing the load down, the weight is increased and a better load securing is achieved. In principle, a distinction is made:

  • Short lever ratchet with approx. 350 daN (kg) of tension force
  • Long lever ratchet with approx. 500 daN (kg) of tension force

The effective tension force generally depends on the force required to tighten the tensioning strap using the ratchet. Therefore, the effective tension force achieved can only be determined using a pretensioning gauge.

Video clip "Handling of straps"

Handling of straps play

Aid: Non-slip mats and edge protectors

In principle, non-slip mats increase the coefficient of friction. However, this quality is only an advantage for certain products. For other products, their use may even have adverse affects (e.g. goods shift on a pallet, increases tipping effect).

Edge protectors not only protect the load and the tensioning strap, they are also an effective aid for securing loads. They distribute the pretensioning force evenly.

Your duties and responsibilities

Each load must be stowed and secured in such a way that it does not slip, tilt, roll around or fall down, even in the event of full braking, sudden evasive manoeuvres or poor road conditions.

If the load securing method cannot be properly determined due to the nature of the load (e.g. packaging, centre of gravity), then please ask for instructions regarding adequate load securing from the loader.

Furthermore, you are obliged to carry out the following measures:

Securing with tensioning strap Securing with tensioning strap Load securing with tensioning straps Load securing with tensioning straps
  • Check the load distribution and load securing before departure. You are also required to check when someone else has loaded the vehicle.
  • If there is a sealed trailer, this may be opened in consultation with your contact person at LKW WALTER if there is imminent danger.
  • Driving style must be adjusted according to the goods.
  • Pay attention to the specifics of load securing in Combined Transport.
  • The load securing must be ensured, even for short journeys within the plant site.
  • Compliance with the "10 golden rules for load securing".

Video clip "Golden rules of load securing"

Golden rules of load securing play
Handling of straps Handling of straps Correct threading of thestrap into the ratchet Correct threading of the
strap into the ratchet

Handling load securing equipment

Please pay attention to the following points:

  • In addition to the permanently mounted tensioning straps on the trailers, at least five additional sets (loose tensioning strap and ratchet) and a sufficient quantity of edge protectors should be carried in your tractor unit.
  • Roll up the loose, unused tensioning straps and store them in your tractor unit together with the other load securing equipment (e.g. edge protectors)! Bring any surplus loose load securing material to one of our load securing equipment depots.
  • During loading, ensure that the loading personnel do not place goods on the unused, permanently mounted tensioning straps or ratchets. If necessary, hang the straps on or through the stacking slats.
  • Tensioning straps and ratchets with significant wear and tear must not be used to secure loads. Dispose of them.
  • Ratchets must not press into the tarpaulin. This can lead to suspensions in the event of inspections at the rail terminal.
  • When using the tensioning straps, ensure that the straps are correctly threaded into the ratchet (see pictures). For goods with sharp edges, use the edge protectors to protect the tensioning straps.
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