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Glossary - LKW WALTER


In our glossary you will find all the important terms relating to transport. Get informed now!



ADR = Accord européen sur le transport de marchandises Dangereuses sur Route

This is an international convention for the transport of dangerous goods by road.

Anti-slip mats

Load securing equipment which is used as an underlay to increase the level of friction. It is made of anti-slip materials e.g. rubber granulate, fibrous materials or coated cardboard.


AÖSp = Allgemeine Österreichische Spediteursbedingungen (General Austrian Forwarders' Terms and Conditions )

The scope of application of the General Austrian Forwarder's terms and conditions is according to agreement. Amongst other things they govern the legal relationship between the principle and the forwarder as well as the liability of the forwarder.

Aramid fabric

Aramid is a special fabric for roof tarpaulins. Aramid is yellow and fire-resistant.



German Federal Office for Goods Transport



Bulkiness is the ratio of volume in m3 to weight in tonnes.



Cabotage is the provision of transport services within a country by a foreign transport company.

Carnet ATA

The Carnet ATA is issued by the national Chambers of Commerce and can be described as an international document for temporary use.
It is used for the customs clearance of goods that are intended for temporary import/export (e.g. trade fairs, building sites abroad, etc.).

Carnet TIR

The Carnet TIR is a transit document with the widest scope. It is valid beyond EU borders in the East, Far East and Middle East. The IRU is the organiser of the Carnet TIR system and assumes liability for customs duties up to max. € 100,000- / Carnet TIR in the EU and other TIR member states. In some TIR member states, a limited guarantee of max. € 60,000,- / Carnet TIR applies.


As a checkpoint we refer to a company commissioned by LKW WALTER, to which the trucks are sent for inspection before they drive to the loading or unloading point. During this check, trained personnel will check, among other things, the technical condition of the vehicle, the availability of required loading equipment (e.g. straps), the driver's personal protective equipment and his knowledge of the respective requirements of the loading/unloading point with regard to the site safety requirements.


CIM = Règles uniformes concernant le Contrat de transport international ferroviaire des marchandises

The CIM are the uniform rules concerning the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Rail and can be found in Appendix B of the COTIF.

See also COTIF.


CMR = Convention relative au contrat de transport internationale de Marchandises par Route

The CMR is the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. The provisions of the CMR are mandatory between all contracting states in cross-border road transport.

Code of Conduct

A "Code of Conduct" is a set of rules outlining suitable behaviour in different situations and contexts, which companies generally voluntarily agree to comply to.
The WALTER GROUP has developed its own Code of Conduct, which serves as a guide for the decisions and business practices of our employees and executives.

Code of Conduct

Coefficient of friction µ (Mu)

When a load is on a trailer floor, friction is generated between the load and the trailer floor, which is expressed by the coefficient of friction. This is used to calculate the slip of the load and the required number of tensioning straps.

Coil carrier

Rolls of sheet metal are also referred to as coils. In order to be able to safely load these coils (rolls that can weigh several tonnes) either suitable packaging (rack) or a trailer with a coil well is required.
The well is a coverable recess in the floor of the trailer, approx. 5 to 8.5m in length. If the coil well is covered, any other goods can be loaded on these vehicles.


Combined load securing

With combined load securing, elements of form-fit and force-fit load securing are combined. The load is, for example, loaded to the front wall and lashed down with form-fit and force-fit tensioning straps. In practice, this method of load securing is very frequently used.

Combined transport

With combined transport, different modes of transport such as trucks, trains and ships are optimally combined to handle transport as environmentally-friendly and cost-efficiently as possible.

  • Rail/Short-Sea for the majority part of the journey (environmentally-friendly transport solution)
  • Trucks for the feeder services (flexible collection and delivery)

Combined transport


CONNECT is our online portal for customers through which orders can be conveniently processed at the click of a mouse. Other features: current order overview and provision of useful additional information.


Customer platform CONNECT


COTIF = Convention relative aux transports internationaux ferroviaries

This is the Convention on International Carriage by Rail. This concerns cross-border movements of both goods and persons.

Cross bars

Cross bars are load securing aids. They are also called cargobars or internal partitioning panels or gates. They help to achieve form-fit load securing, which prevents the load from slipping forwards or backwards.

Cross lashing

Form-fit load securing method for securing lateral accelerations (against forces acting sidewards). Used in the chemical industry, among others.

See also Form-fit.

Customs seal

When transporting customs goods, a customs seal can be attached by customs authorities to either the trailer itself (= TIR seal) or the individual package (= open TIR seal).



daN stands for dekanewton. The Newton [ˈnjuːtn] (unit symbol N) is the unit of measure used in the international unit system (SI) for the physical size of a force. daN is a unit that is used e.g. in load securing to indicate the load carrying capacity or ultimate strength of ropes or straps. It roughly corresponds to the weight that acts on a mass of 1 kg. A rope with an ultimate strength of 1,000 daN can therefore support approx. 1,000 kg.


ECMT permit

CEMT = Conférence Européenne des Ministres des Transports (European Conference of Ministers of Transport)

The number and country allocation of ECMT permits is determined on the basis of a resolution by the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (International Transport Forum ITF) each year. This permit authorises the execution of commercial road transports between the approx. 45 ECMT member states.


The "European Chemical Transport Association" is the association of European land transport companies with the aim of improving standards in transport efficiency, safety, quality, the environment and the social aspects when transporting chemical products in Europe. ECTA is also the association responsible for the "Reponsible Care Initiative" for the European land transport sector. (www.ecta.com)

Edge protectors

Load securing equipment in various designs (plastic, cardboard, etc.), which protect the goods and the straps from damage.

EDI connection

EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange

EN 12195-1

Mandatory European standard for calculating securing forces in load securing; valid for vehicles with a total weight of 3.5 to or higher.

EN 12642 XL

EN 12642 XL is a load securing term. This is the European standard for reinforced vehicle bodies. XL bodies correspond to this standard. The entire trailer fleet for combined transport at LKW WALTER has the standard EN 12642 XL.

EURO classes (2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

EURO 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 stand for the different engine classes of quiet and low-emission trucks.
LKW WALTER increasingly employs transport partners with environmentally-friendly equipment of EURO class 5 or higher.



FBL = FIATA Multimodal Transport Bill of Lading

The FBL is a document that acknowledges the receipt of the cargo and serves as a shipping contract. Furthermore it is a title of property for the person who physically holds the document in their hands.


FCR = Forwarding Agent's Certificate of Receipt

This FCR is a document that confirms the receipt of the cargo by the forwarder (a forwarder's transport document that constitutes proof).


FIATA = Fédération Internationale des Associations de Transitaires et Assimilés

The FIATA is the "International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations", which was founded in Vienna on 31st May 1926. It has approx. 40,000 members (freight forwarders) in 150 countries. FIATA enjoys consultative status in the UN and has its head office in Zurich.


Force-fit is a type of load securing.

With "force-fit" load securing, lashing the goods down increases the weight force of the goods, thus achieving a better load securing.

This is achieved e.g. by lashing with tensioning straps.


Form-fit is a type of load securing.

With "form-fit" load securing, the goods are loaded perpendicular to the boundary of the loading hold (front wall, side panel, stakes, etc.) without gaps between the loads.
Form-fit loading, in combination with XL trailers, is considered a particularly efficient method of securing loads.

Freight exchange platform

In a freight exchange platform loads and transports are traded (usually online) between suppliers of freight and suppliers of cargo space.

Front wall

The front wall is the front wall in the trailer.


FTL is the English abbreviation for 'Full Truck Load'.

See also Full truck load.

Full truck load

A full truck load is a load which is generally intended for a single recipient.
The international abbreviation for it is "FTL" - Full Truck load.


General average

Expression for extraordinary events or incidents in river and sea shipping.
General average benefits are expenses for the salvage of ship and load from common danger, the costs of which the owners of the ship and the load/cargo are liable in equal parts.

Global Compact

Global Compact is the world's largest Corporate Sustainability Initiative under the patronage of the United Nations. It is an appeal to companies to align their strategies and actions with universal principles of human rights, employment, the environment and anti-corruption, and to take measures that drive societal goals. (www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc)

GREEN transport

'GREEN transport' is an LKW WALTER brand which encompasses all our activities for reducing the polluting emissions of our transports.

GREEN transport


GZA = "Grundlagen der Zusammenarbeit" (Guidelines for Cooperation)

They are the basis for future partnerships with our transport partners.



HACCP = Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

Is a management system targeted towards preventative measures. It is used to identify, assess and manage significant health hazards, which may occur during the transportation of food. The aim is to provide the best possible product safety and to ensure protection of the end user.



Incoterms (International Commercial Terms) are standardised international commercial clauses. They are prepared and published by the International Chamber of Commerce (current version: Incoterms 2010). The parties (vendor, buyer) of a commercial transaction may agree upon a clause of these Incoterms. With the help of Incoterms, the fundamental vendor and buyer obligations, particularly the transfer of risk and costs of a delivery, are regulated between the commercial partners.

Intermodal transport


IRU = International Road Transport Union

The IRU, based in Geneva, generally represents the interests of the transport industry on the road and is organiser of the Carnet TIR system.


ISO = "International Organization for Standardization"

LKW WALTER has been quality-certified according to ISO 9001:2008 since 1992 and environmentally-certified according to ISO 14001:2004 since 2016.

ISO certificate (PDF)



Protected trademark. Derived from innovator and company founder Johnstone George.
JOLODA refers to a time and effort-saving loading system on trailers, which is used in particular for the transportation of paper products.



LOADS TODAY, Europe's leading full truck load exchange, is an internet platform from LKW WALTER for transport partners.
A major advantage of LOADS TODAY is that transport partners from LKW WALTER only find full truck loads that are commissioned and paid by LKW WALTER in LOADS TODAY.

LOADS TODAY Freight Exchange

Long lever ratchet

The long lever ratchet, also known as a tension ratchet, acts as a tension element in load securing with straps. As of April 2014, a long lever ratchet has to provide pre-tensioning forces of 375 to 500 daN in accordance with EN 12195.

See also Short lever ratchet.


LTL is the English abbreviation for 'Less than Truck Load'.


max. loading height

Side loading height: Maximum height up to which one can load the trailer from the side.
Rear loading height: Maximum height up to which one can load the trailer from the rear.

Mega trailer

The mega trailer is a trailer with an internal height of 3 m.


Minimum wage law - German law regulating a general minimum wage.
Since 01.01.2015, a statutory minimum wage has been defined nationwide in Germany.

Multilock rail for load securing

The multilock rail is a steel strip on the floor of a trailer (on the left and right frame) with aligned mounting points for straps.



For neutralisation, the origin or destination of the goods is withheld at the loading/unloading point. A distinction is made between value and name neutralisation.


Online Booking

Order booking via our CONNECT online customer portal.

See also CONNECT.


Packing list

A packing list is a list of packing units. It is used to determine the exact scope and type of goods.


A paperliner is a special trailer for paper loads with an automatic loading/unloading system (Joloda rails, Joloda skates).

phenolic coated plywood floor

Today, the phenolic coated plywood floor is the usual type of floor in a trailer.


PPE = Personal Protective Equipment

The following signs stipulate the constant use of personal protective equipment: protective helmet (EN 397), safety glasses (EN 166/EN 166-3), ear protection (EN 352), full length clothing, high visibility vest (EN 471), work gloves (EN 388) and safety shoes with steel toe caps (EN 20345 S1).



respACT is the Austrian corporate platform for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development. As an initiator, respACT supports its member companies with up-to-date news and information on sustainable economic activity, regular opportunities for networking and offers for competency development. "Responsible actions" are targeted towards a social, ecological and economical modernisation of the following areas: management and design, market, employees, environment and society. (www.respact.at)

Responsible Care

A global, voluntary initiative from the chemical industry with the purpose of improving the health, safety and environmental situation through strict self-monitoring.


Round trip model

In the round trip model, our hauliers are constantly travelling between two countries in round trips (e.g. Germany - France - Germany).



SHEQ = Safety, Security, Health, Environment, Quality

In 2005, LKW WALTER consolidated the fields of safety/health, environment and quality. In 2008, the Security Management was installed. Since then, these topics have been merged under the term SHEQ.


Short lever ratchet

The short lever ratchet, also known as a pressure ratchet, acts as a tension element for load securing with straps. As of April 2004, a short lever ratchet has to provide pre-tensioning forces of 250 to 350 daN in accordance with EN 12195.

See also Long lever ratchet.

Short Sea Shipping

Short sea shipping refers to the transport of goods at sea within a continent. For LKW WALTER it is one of the possible transport options in combined transport.

See also Combined transport.

Side board

The side board (= lateral external wall) is a structural limitation of the loading space.
It serves as a separation in order to prevent the goods from falling down.

Side loop lashing

Is also referred to as a loop lashing. Form-fit load securing method for securing lateral accelerations (against forces acting on the side). Is used in the steel industry, among others.

See also Form-fit.

Spring lashing

Form-fit load securing method for securing force effects in and against the direction of travel. It is used in the chemical industry, among others.

See also Form-fit.


SQAS = Safety & Quality Assessment System

The SQAS assessment is a system that was developed by CEFIC, the 'European Chemical Industry Council'.
The assessment must be renewed every 3 years and serves as a tool to qualify quality, safety (personnel and property protection), environmental behaviour and CSR measures from transport and logistic companies in a uniform form.
LKW WALTER was first assessed according to SQAS in 1995.


These are upright bars in the trailer, which are anchored in the vehicle floor. Stanchions are used as a load securing aid, which goods can be secured against.


Stanchions are lateral, vertical support poles and part of a trailer.


Straps are used to fasten and secure the goods.
In principle, a distinction is made between straps with short lever ratchets (approx. 350 daN tensioning force) and straps with long lever ratchets (approx. 500 daN tensioning force).


T1, T2, T-

T1, T2 and T- are customs transit documents for the movement of customs goods between the 27 EU member states, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Türkiye and Serbia.


The tachograph is an electronic device that mainly records driving and rest times.


A tautliner is a vehicle body with curtain sides and without side boards.

Terminal (rail/ferry)

A terminal in Combined Transport (road-rail/ship) is a facility for the handling of equipment (trailers, containers) at railway stations and in ports.

Traction Work

Under the term trailer trucking we refer to the carrying out of feeder services in Combined Transport, i.e. traction of LKW WALTER trailers from the loading point to the terminal/harbour or from the terminal/harbour to the unloading point.

See also Combined transport.

Transport Insurance

The transport insurance is a goods insurance. The insurance begins from loading the goods at the agreed place of receipt and ends with the unloading. It covers damage that goes beyond the scope of the carrier's liability according to the CMR. The conclusion of a separate transport insurance policy is on behalf and at the expense of the customer.
The "General Austrian Transport Insurance Conditions" (AÖTB 1988) form the legal basis for this.


Underride protection device (side, rear)

The underride protection is a safety device on trailers and trucks, so that in the event of an accident, other road users cannot end up under the vehicle.


XL trailer

In contrast with standard trailers, XL trailers have several characteristics that further support load securing - e.g. reinforced front wall, 4 door locks, reinforced curtain, at least 32 side slats, stronger structure and reinforced side panels.

Our own trailer fleet consists exclusively of XL trailers.

See also EN 12642 XL.